SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND THE SUPERGRAVITON
The link strengthens as more superconductors are discovered
Copyright, Harold Aspden, 2000
Earlier in these web pages I have pointed to the connecting link between the supergraviton and the phenomenon of superconductivity. See
WARM SUPERCONDUCTIVITY. The link is a mass quantity that is approximately 102 atomic mass units.
Matter comprises atoms and molecules which share a quantum jitter motion having the high frequency of a photon, the energy of which is equal to the rest-mass energy of the electron. That cyclic motion would mean that matter is dynamically out-of-balance were it not for the juxtaposed motion of a counterbalancing system of gravitons induced as part of the zero-point field system hidden in the fabric of space. One can calculate G, the Constant of Gravitation, in terms of the electron by developing the appropriate quantum relationships based on gravitons and their interaction according to electrodynamic force law. This is of record elsewhere in these web pages. See THE THEORY OF GRAVITATION.
With the advance of this theory over the years, it became evident that heavy molecules induce a complex form of graviton as a cluster of graviton components which overall is capable of providing dynamic balance for a mass slightly greater than 102 atomic mass units, this being what is here termed the 'supergraviton'.
The first experimental evidence which was seen to point to this particular quantum mass unit came with the discovery of several warm superconductor materials having the perovskite molecular structure. The molecules individually or collectively as a small group had mass which was an integer multiple of a common quantity, the supergraviton mass, a mass derived theoretically according to this author's theory of gravitation.
The relevance to superconductivity arises because the dynamic balance involved in the action of gravity allows a molecule to absorb impact by an electron or shed an electron without dissipating energy in molecular vibrations. There is a magnetic inductance process involved by which collisions between free conduction electrons and those molecules can sustain a flow of electrical current by, as it were, cooling the molecule, and storing the energy as inductance energy during the collision whilst deploying the heat released to meet any accompanying spurious loss owing to that dynamic balance not being absolutely perfect.
This, in summary, is the background to this author's argument that warm superconductivity and quantum gravitational theory are linked to the existence of a mass quantum that is slightly greater than 102 atomic mass units.
As the above theory developed, it was noted by chance that the molecular composition or alloy compositions of certain permanent magnet materials seemed to point also to the dynamic link with the supergraviton. Could it be that the property of permanent magnetism arises owing to a sustained circulating current flow in the body of the magnet? The numerical evidence was strong. (NOTE: Here, I hoped to include a reference to another page of this web site where I have already discussed this theme, but I cannot find it and even wonder if it was erased unintentionally. I will rectify this situation as soon as I can.) The problem, however, was that this implied the existence of room temperature superconductivity in those permanent magnet materials that do exhibit very high coercive force. The problem is also compounded by the general recognition that a strong magnetic field cannot penetrate within a superconductor.
This brings us to the essential and new contribution of this Essay.
First, I note that long before I had heard of 'high temperature superconductors' (they were only discovered in the latter part of the 1980s) I had expressed my views on why certain substances are ferromagnetic. My account was published in 1969 in my book Physics without Einstein. It was based on my experimental Ph.D. research studying the effects of mechanical stress on the anomalous eddy-current losses found in iron and in nickel. Essentially, I reasoned that magnetic inductance energy can be stored in the vacuum, a factor which told me that there has to be something in that vacuum that reacts and becomes itself polarized by the presence of a magnetic field. Now do keep in mind here that advanced physics texts dealing with magnetic field energy need to take account of the fact that magnetic field energy has a negative potential. A magnetic state involves negative potential and iron is ferromagnetic below its Curie temperature simply because the magnetic field produced by the collective action of certain of its atomic electrons has a negative magnetic potential that is not outweighed by the accompanying mechanical strain energy set up by electrodynamic interaction forces acting between those particular electrons.
The modulus of elasticity, whether for iron, nickel or cobalt, is quite high, meaning that the powerful stresses that accompany the ferromagnetic state involve less strain and so less strain energy, energy which is at a positive potential. Energy deploys in a physical system in seeking a minimum potential state. It so happens that, for iron, nickel and cobalt, this is the ferromagnetic state, as I show in my book Physics without Einstein.
Now, as to superconductivity, I did not wake up to the link with the supergraviton until many years on from that 1969 book, though gravitons do feature in that book because it describes a unified theory linking gravity and electromagnetism. The supergraviton comes into being only in the presence of heavy molecules and it is the interplay of such molecules with electrons, as they carry a current flow, that brings us into the realm of superconductivity. In that 1969 book I did explain why electrons can avoid shedding energy by radiation as they progress through a conductive material and even pointed to the fact that it was anomalous that uranium 235 changes from superconductive to the normal conductive state at a lower temperature than does uranium 238. That is discussed on p. 16 of the book. However, at the time, the "102" test mentioned above was something that was 20 years ahead along the path of discovery. Yet, when I did discover the supergraviton mass and saw how it related to energy transfer in the electrical conduction process, I remembered what I had said about uranium. Three atoms of uranium 238 share a mass of 714 atomic mass units and, note it well, 714 is 7 times 102! That is why the heavier isotope of uranium is a superconductor to a higher temperature.
So, with that digression referring to the theory of ferromagnetism and superconductivity, we come to the discovery reported in the October, 2000 issue of Physics World. A report on pp. 24-25 is entitled: Ferromagnetic superconductor revealed. The report concerns the account by S. Saxena et al 2000 Nature 406 587 describing findings from collaboration between three universities. Quoting from the report:
"The group has discovered the first material where metallic ferromagnetism and superconductivity co-exist. Under high pressure, uranium germanium (UGe2) loses its electrical resistance without expelling the internal magnetic field. The million dollar question is why did it take so long for these phases to get together?"
Well, from my point of view, I had to be interested (a) in wondering how this particular molecular composition fitted with my theory of the ferromagnetic state, as outlined above, and (b) whether my "102" test would rise to the occasion.
So, judge for yourself. As you will have seen above, it required a grouping of 3 uranium 238 atoms to form a mass resonance that could engage 7 supergravitons in dynamic balance to thereby avoid too much energy dissipation. Take one atom of uranium, which data sources say has an atomic mass of 238.14, and two atoms of germanium, which data sources say has an atomic mass of 72.60, and so find that the composite molecular form has a mass of 383.34 a.m.u. Then ask if a small grouping of just a few such molecular forms can point to that "102" resonant state. You will discover that 4 such molecular forms have an aggregate mass of 1533.36, which is 15 times 102.224.
So, I am still seeing here support for my "102" supergraviton theory and, admittedly, I had also to see how my theory of the ferromagnetic state could apply to this uranium germanium material. Happily it can and I here put on record, by way of an Appendix to this account, a brief note that covers the point, though it is little more than an personal aide memoir which needs clarification by reference to the chapter on ferromagnetism in my book Physics without Einstein.
The above item in the October, 2000 issue of Physics World has now been followed by a report at pp. 25-26 of the November, 2000 issue of this same periodical concerning the discovery of the "first non-cuprate material that superconducts above liquid-nitrogen temperatures (Y Levi et al 2000Europhys. Lett. 51 564."
The material involved is sodium-doped tungsten trioxide. It is stated that the tungsten atoms are surrounded by six oxygen atoms in a perovskite structure having the composition NaxWO3, which is an insulator for x=0, but becomes an n-type semiconductor with x increasing to 0.3, but thereafter it becomes a metal.
So, I was tempted to perform my "102" test, seeing here a composition in which layers of molecules comprising composite molecular units of the formula Na2W2O6 are formed in a material which otherwise contains tungsten trioxide without the same concentration of sodium atoms. The net atomic weight of this composite molecular form, given that Na, W and O atoms account for 23, 184 and 16 units, respectively, is then seen to be 510. This is exactly 5 times that quantum supergraviton mass unit 102!
So, once again, we see scientific discovery pointing the finger at the dynamic mass resonance involving the supergraviton.
However, what I have had to say on this "102" mass resonance theme is simply ignored, because scientists want to believe otherwise and so they soldier on looking for clues to help their search for higher temperature superconductive materials. As this Physics World article describes the path ahead:
"Historically, there are three approaches to such a quest. The reasoned approach works from a raft of theoretical insights to narrow down possibilities and hopefully predict a candidate. The trial-and-error approach resorts to sheer effort to eventually stumble on a candidate. Then there is serendipity - the fortuitous happenstance of unexpected discovery. History tells us that serendipity is nature's favoured route. The ideal approach, perhaps, is to attempt to bring all three to bear on a problem."
So, whoever may read this, if already embarked on the quest of discovery by stumbling on the ultimate room temperature superconductor, should pay attention and factor the "102" mass resonance into the 'trial-and-error' choice of molecular compositions warranting investigation.
The ferromagnetic state of iron arises from the contribution of two electrons in each iron atom which have energy states close enough to cause them to lock into a synchronized orbital motion by sharing energy via their mutual interaction. These electrons are 3d state electrons, meaning that they belong to the n=3 shell of the quantized system of motion well known in physics. The 3d state electrons have an orbital motion that corresponds to the n=2 level of the earlier Bohr theory of the atom.
The frequency of this orbital motion is, in Bohr theory, proportional to Z2/n3, where Z is the atomic number of the atom.
Now, confronting the question of how a composition of uranium and germanium could possibly be ferromagnetic, there are two considerations. Firstly, we need to see scope for frequency synchronization of d state electrons in both uranium and germanium, albeit of different energy levels. Secondly, there is need for the resulting electrodynamic interaction forces between those electrons, as moderated by electrostatic interaction, to produce resulting mechanical stress that lies within elastic yield limits of the material, with the negative potential energy density of the resulting magnetic field being of greater magnitude than the associated mechanical stress energy density.
The second of these considerations would need extensive analysis and require data concerning the perovskite composition, which this author does not have, including data concerning the modulus of elasticity of the material. However, the first of these considerations can be tested.
If we regard the synchronous interaction as being between 3d state electrons in germanium and 5d state electrons in uranium, the relevant n values for orbital quantization according to Bohr theory are 2 and 4, respectively. Now, for synchronized interaction to occur, this means that the corresponding Z2 ratio has to be the inverse of the n3 ratio.
Since Z for uranium is 92 and Z for germanium is 32, it is then of interest to calculate the ratio of (92)2 to (32)2 to see how close this is to (2)3.
You may then verify that the ratio is actually (2.02)3, which seems close enough to make a convergence to the synchronized state seem possible. This is therefore an encouraging result which does seem to offer support for my theory of the ferromagnetic state, but all the more so given the interrelated support from the superconductive aspect discussed above.
Readers interested in this subject have more to learn in the next Essay: NOTE ON SUPERCONDUCTIVITY
November 4 2000