The following is a paper by H. Aspden published as a Letter to the Editor by the U.K. Institute of Physics in Physics Education, vol. 34, No. 5, p. 263 (1999).


Commentary: This paper challenges the assertion by the physics community that the temperature within the Sun can be as high as 100,000,000 degrees, whereas we know the Sun has a surface temperature close to 6,000 degrees. Physicists imagine the Sun is powered by nuclear fusion, but its energy is really sourced in the activity of the quantum underworld of space at the solar surface as now explained in detail in my 2006 book Creation: The Physical Truth. I have written that book because physicists expert in nuclear fusion have chosen to ignore the simple educational message that this 1999 paper conveys. Below I quote three paragraphs from that paper.

"... a serious student might wonder why the interior of the Sun needs to be hotter than the temperature of 6,000 K or so that is implied by its surface radiation. Given that the Sun is mainly composed of hydrogen gas in a highly ionised state and that we know its mean mass density is around 1,400 kg per cubic metre, such a student might reason that the hydrogen atoms are simply squeezed so tightly together that the electron K-shells overlap slightly. Electron collision (powered by whatever energizes the quantum underworld of space) implies ionization, a state in which electrons and protons become freely moving. Given then the fact that two protons have a mutual rate of acceleration due to gravity that is 1836 times greater than that for the electron-electron interaction, surely one must expect the proton population to be displaced radially inwards relative to the electron population. That implies electrostatic repulsion exactly in balance with gravitational attraction over the vast region of the solar interior, holding the mass density uniform."

"An astute student might then point out that if spheres of K-shell radius 5.29x10-11 m are closely packed at random into an enveloping spherical form and each of those spheres has a mass equal to that of the hydrogen atom, one expects the mass density to be around 1,700 kg per cubic metre, and that might explain why the Sun has the slightly smaller overall mass density of 1,400 kg per cubic metre."

[Here I just note that when I came to write Creation: The Physical Truth I had decided that the hydrogen atoms in the Sun must adopt a cubic lattice structure with each atom sitting in a cube of side dimension twice the K-shell Bohr radius. This gives the 1,400 kg per cubic metre figure. See page 39 of Creation: The Physical Truth.]

"That same student could hardly miss the obvious implication that the Sun has a distributed positive charge in its interior surrounded by a neutralizing surface shell of negative charge and, the latter having a greater contribution to magnetic moment, so the Sun in rotating should have a magnetic moment related to G, the constant of gravitation."