The Sun's Energy Source

© Harold Aspden, 2006

Gravitation as between the sun's hydrogen atoms causes their electrons to collide. This results in ionization and free protons, which, owing to their mutual gravitational interaction being so much stronger than that of electron interaction, become the dominant free charge form and give the sun a positive core charge, thereby causing the sun to have a uniform mass density. This is set by the balance of the free-proton electrostatic repulsion and the sun's overall gravitational attraction. The sun has therefore a mass density of 1.41 gm/cc which is defined by dividing the mass of the hydrogen atom by the cube of the diameter of the Bohr orbit of the electron motion. What, however, determines the sun's temperature? That is the subject discussed below.

As you will see it is the temperature determined by the following equation:

π(λ)2σ(T)4/8c = GM(4π/3R

By showing students how to derive this equation, which tells us the sun has a temperature of 5,695 K, in agreement with the heat radiation as measured, they will surely see why their basic knowledge of physics is so important. Our very existence depends upon the energy we receive from the sun. Students of today face a future during which oil reserves will diminish dramatically. The sun's heat derives from energy tapped from the quantum underworld that keeps electrons in motion in their parent atoms. It does not come from nuclear fusion! So there is a major lesson to learn and those who teach physics today must heed the evidence here presented. Research students of today need to find a way of tapping the energy resource of the quantum underworld that permeates all space and the starting point for such research that I offer in my book Creation: The Physical Truth [1] is the explanation of how the sun acquired its spin by interaction with the medium constituting that quantum underworld.

So, to proceed, what is the physical process that determines the temperature of the sun?

The answer to this question depends upon the physical size of the electron, inasmuch as it is the electron in the hydrogen atom that provides virtually the whole of the atom's reaction cross-section subjected to the sun's radiation pressure. It is a curious fact, however, that a century and more has elapsed since J.J. Thomson discovered the electron and yet we are told, as by Cambridge Encyclopaedia (Cambridge University Press, 2000 Edition, page 908), that the electron "...(has) no known size, (is) assumed point-like, (with) no known substructure.." The wisdom of today's physics community does not therefore allow us to see a way forward in our efforts to comprehend the sun's energy source as being regulated by pressure balance with energy being tapped from the quantum activity of the underworld that pervades all space. We must therefore revert to the wisdom of the past.

The size of the electron can be specified in two ways. Firstly, if we see the electron as a ball of electric charge, that charge has a certain radius. In pre-Einstein times (1904) physics textbook knowledge [2] gave the formula for charge radius a in terms of the electron mass m and the electron charge e:

m = 2e2/3a
where e is expressed in electromagnetic units, the formula becoming:
mc2 = 2e2/3a
where e is expressed in electrostatic units. No doubt this was derived by integrating the electromagnetic field energy external to radius a at a given electron speed v and equating this to mv2. Note that mc2 is mass-energy if 2e2/3a is regarded as comprising electric field energy summed over space outside that radius a and adding the electric energy within radius a found by assuming that the pressure or energy density within that radius is the same as applies at the charge surface of the electron. Secondly, however, if we see the electron as a ball of energy, rather than a ball of charge, and regard the sun's radiation pressure at the sun's surface, where energy is released explosively and has not at that stage become that of electromagnetic radiation, it is not the electron's charge that absorbs that pressure. Instead it is the electron form defined by the mass-energy it exhibits in its quantum motion within the hydrogen atom. This mass-energy is slightly less than that applicable to a free electron in linear motion. We know this from the derivation of the gyromagnetic ratio factor in quantum electrodynamics. Suffice it here to note that the electron exhibits a radius that is approximately half the value of the Compton electron wavelength, as if there is a radial resonance effect propagating through the electron's energy field at the speed of light c. The electron's electric field energy that lies outside this radius is therefore not effective in determining its mass for motion within the hydrogen atom, but the main point of interest here is that the electron, when confronted with the sun's radiation pressure, exhibits itself as a spherical ball of diameter approximately equal to the Compton wavelemgth λ. Therefore we can formulate an equation telling us what the temperature of the sun should be.

The sun's temperature T sets up a radiation pressure (T)4/c, where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. This is effectively halved when the radiation is intercepted by a spherical form owing to the variation of angle of incidence. For an obstructing spherical object of diameter λ , this implies a force that is:

acting against the gravitational force attracting the electron's parent hydrogen atom towards the sun, which is:
G being the constant of gravitation, M being the mass of the hydrogen atom, ρ being the mass density of the sun and R being the sun's radius. From the equality of these expressions and our knowledge of the physical values of all the terms except T we can then determine what the sun's temperature should be assuming it be set by quantum theory factors rather than a nuclear fusion process. The sun's energy is surely being supplied directly by the physical system in space that regulates the quantum behaviour of atoms. When two atoms are brought into contact in the sense that their electron orbits overlap then there can be ionization, release of energy, energy which the ions somehow recover from the ongoing quantum activity of the space medium, the aether.

The relevant numerical data in S.I. units for the terms involved are:
λ = 2.426x10-12, σ = 5,670x10-8, c = 2.998x108, G = 6.673x10-11, M = 1.673x10-27, R = 6.96x108, and ρ = 1.41x103, which is the mass M divided by the cube of twice 5.291x10-11, the Bohr radius applicable to the electron of the hydrogen atom. The temperature T is then evaluated as 5,695 Kelvin.

The solar constant according to physics textbook data [3] as based on black-body radiation assumptions and use of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant is somewhat uncertain, but, as that reference states:

"... the best available figure is 1.94 calories per sq. cm. per minute (equivalent to 0.135 watts per sq. cm.), giving a temperature of about 5,800 K."

The educational value of this analysis is very considerable. Implicit in that pre-Einstein teaching is the physical basis of the formula E = Mc2, it being the result of the electron exhibiting an inertial property that assures it does not radiate its own electric field energy when accelerated. See Chapter 8 of ref. [1]. This underpins quantum theory. Physics is a school subject giving the foundation for a career concerned with technology, engineering, so why not invite the student to ask how Maxwell's equations allow lateral charge displacement in the space medium with the passage of a wave if there is not something there to provide dynamic balance? That is the key giving the link between matter and something in space, gravitons, which provide that balance and, incidentally, account for gravitational action. See Part I of ref. [1]. Proton creation and the ongoing activity in space seeking to create more protons but failing for lack of the needed angular momentum combine to explain both the amount of matter in our universe and the amount of quasi-matter (dark matter) as explained in Part II of ref. [1]. The problem, of course, is the task of daring to teach physics which questions what Einstein has bequeathed to us, but we face a future of diminishing energy resource if we do not rise to that challenge and cannot afford to ignore what I claim to be the verifiable truth that governs the physics concerned with the creation of matter and the necessary energy source involved. Furthermore, given the dangers associated with nuclear energy, it is sensible to direct the student mind towards an alternative source of energy, one which allows the student to form a physical picture of the energy underworld and verify it by checking the mathematical analysis that underpins what I have presented.

[1] H. Aspden, Creation: The Physical Truth, Book Guild Publishing, Brighton, England (2006).
[2] W. C. D. Whetham, The Recent Development of Physical Science, publisher: John Murray, p. 283 (1904). (Whetham was a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge).
[3] S. G. Starling & A. J. Woodhall, Physics, publisher: Longmans Green & Co. Ltd. p. 361 (1958).

P.S. As a final note, may I say that I just cannot understand how any physicist can have missed seeing the fact that, if the sun is composed of hydrogen atoms and is ionised, as must be so given its temperature, then the protons that are freed will be pulled together by gravity sufficiently to cause it to have a positively charged core. That prevents further gravitational compaction and precludes conditions within the sun that are deemed to sustain nuclear fusion. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN, in serving to bring protons into collision in spite of their mutual repulsion cannot possibly, therefore, tell us anything that relates to the natural phenomena evident in the stellar matter that constitutes our universe. As to non-stellar matter, such as is found in planetary matter, meaning heavy atoms or molecules, there is evidence of an associated heavy graviton form having a mass of 93 GeV/c2 but LHC physicists are looking elsewhere and for a slightly heavier imaginary particle (the Higgs particle).